User guide

ledger2beancount supports most of the syntax from ledger. It also offers some features to improve the conversion from ledger to beancount.

If you're new to beancount, we suggest you read this section in parallel to the illustrated ledger file. This example ledger file explains differences between ledger and beancount, shows how ledger syntax is converted to beancount and describes how you can use the features described in this section to improve the conversion from ledger to beancount. The illustrated example uses the same subsections as this section, so it's easy to follow in parallel.

You can convert the illustrated ledger file to beancount like this:

ledger2beancount --config examples/illustrated.yaml examples/illustrated.ledger

But please be aware that it doesn't pass bean-check. See the comments in the file as to why.

Note on regular expressions: many of the features described below require you to specify regular expressions in ledger2beancount configuration file. The expected syntax (and semantics) for all such values is that of Perl regular expressions.


ledger2beancount will convert ledger account declarations to beancount open statements using the account_open_date variable as the opening date. The note is used as the description. The sub-directives alias and payee are supported. Other sub-directives are not supported.

Unlike ledger, beancount requires declarations for all account names. If an account was not declared in your ledger file but used, ledger2beancount will automatically create an open statement in beancount. You can turn this off by setting automatic_declarations to false. This is useful if you have include files and run ledger2beancount several times since duplicate open statements for the same account will result in an error from beancount.

ledger2beancount replaces ledger account names with valid beancount accounts and therefore performs the following transformations automatically:

  1. Replaces space and other invalid characters with dash (Liabilities:Credit Card becomes Liabilities:Credit-Card)
  2. Replaces account names starting with lower case letters with upper case letters (Assets:test becomes Assets:Test)
  3. Ensures the first letter is a letter or number by replacing a non-letter first character with an X.

While these transformations lead to valid beancount account names, they might not be what you desire. Therefore, you can add account mappings to account_map to map the transformed account names to something different. The mapping will work on your ledger account names and on the account names after the transformation.

Unlike ledger, beancount expects all account names to start with one of five account types, also known as root names. The default root names are Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Expenses, and Income. If you want to use other root names, you can configure them using the beancount options name_assets, name_liabilities, name_equity, name_expenses, and name_income. ledger2beancount knows about common root names in some languages and will try to set the required beancount options automatically where possible; if ledger2beancount isn't able to set the options, it will alert you in a conversion note so you can add the options yourself (for example in a file specified via beancount_header).

If you use more than five root names, you will have to rename them. ledger2beancount offers the account_regex option to mass rename account names. If you use the top-level root name Accrued to track accounts payable and accounts receivable, you can rename them with this account_regex config option:

  ^Accrued:Accounts Payable:(.*): Liabilities:Accounts-Payable:$1
  ^Accrued:Accounts Receivable:(.*): Assets:Accounts-Receivable:$1

Ledger's apply account and alias directives are supported. The mapping of account names described above is done after these directives.


In ledger, amounts can be placed after the commodity. This is converted to beancount with the amount first, followed by the commodity.

If you use commas as the decimal separator (i.e. values like 10,12, using the ledger option --decimal-comma) you have to set the decimal_comma option to true. Please note that commas are not supported as the decimal separator in beancount at the moment (issue 204) so your amounts are converted not to use comma as the decimal separator.

Commas as separators for thousands (e.g. 1,000,000) are supported by beancount.

Ledger allows amounts without commodities, e.g.:

    Assets:Test                         10.00

While this is allowed in ledger, it's not recommended and we suggest you add commodities to your ledger file. However, ledger2beancount supports commodity-less amounts and will use the config variable default_commodity to set the commodity for beancount (which requires every amount to have a commodity).


Like accounts, ledger2beancount will convert ledger commodity declarations to beancount. The note is converted to name. As with account names, ledger2beancount will create commodity statements for all commodities used in your ledger file (if automatic_declarations is true).

ledger2beancount will automatically convert commodities to valid beancount commodities. This involves replacing all invalid characters with a dash (a character allowed in beancount commodities but not in ledger commodities), stripping quoted commodities, making the commodity uppercase and limiting it to 24 characters. Furthermore, the first character will be replaced with an X if it's not a letter and the same will be done for the last character if it's not a letter or digit. Finally, all beancount commodities currently have to consist of at least two characters (issue 192).

If you require a mapping between ledger and beancount commodities, you can use commodity_map. You can use your ledger commodity names or the names after the transformation in the map to perform a mapping to another commodity name.

Commodity symbols (like $, and £) are supported and converted to their respective commodity codes (like USD, EUR, GBP). Update commodity_map if you use other symbols.


ledger2beancount supports both transaction flags (transaction state) and account flags (state flags).


ledger supports a wide range of date formats whereas beancount requires all dates in the format YYYY-MM-DD (ISO 8601). ledger2beancount automatically recognises the default date formats from ledger:

  • MM/DD (without year)

The variable date_format has to be set if you don't use any of these date formats in your ledger file. date_format uses the same format as the ledger options --input-date-format and --date-format (see man 1 date).

Ledger allows dates without a year if the year is declared using the Y, year and apply year directives. If date_format_no_year is set, ledger2beancount can convert such dates to YYYY-MM-DD.

Posting-level dates are recognised by ledger2beancount and stored as metadata according to the postdate_tag (date by default) but this has no effect in beancount. There is a proposal to support this functionality in a different way, but this is not implemented in beancount yet.

While ledger2beancount itself doesn't read your ledger config file, the script ledger2beancount-ledger-config can be used to parse your ledger config file (~/.ledgerrc) or your ledger file (ledger files may contain ledger options) to output the correct config option for ledger2beancount.

Auxiliary dates

Beancount currently doesn't support ledger's auxiliary dates (or effective dates; also known as date2 in hledger) (but there is a proposal to support this functionality in a different way), so these are stored as metadata according to the auxdate_tag variable. Unset the variable if you don't want auxiliary dates to be stored as metadata. Account and posting-level auxiliary dates are supported.

The effective_date plugin for beancount can be used to split postings which contain metadata with auxiliary dates into two postings.

Transaction codes

Beancount doesn't support ledger's transaction codes. These are therefore stored as metadata if code_tag is set.

While these ledger codes can be integers (e.g. check numbers), there's no such requirement in ledger and they can be any string. Therefore, ledger2beancount stores them as strings in beancount. If you'd like to change the type from string to integer, you can simply post-process the generated beancount file to remove the quotation marks around the codes. For example, if code_tag is set to code, you can use this Perl call:

perl -pi -e 's/^(\s+code: )"(\d+)"$/$1$2/' *.beancount

Narration and payee

Ledger's "payee" information is a free-form field and is used in different ways by different users. Some use it to describe the transaction, some us it to specify the payee, and some put both information into the same field, possibly separated by some deliminator. While hledger also has only one field, it supports the separation of payee and narration using the pipe character (payee | narration). This is supported by ledger2beancount if the hledger option is enabled.

Unlike ledger and hledger, beancount offers two separate fields:

  • an optional payee
  • a narration (a description of the transaction)

By default, ledger's payee information is stored as the narration as the field is often used as free-form text to describe the transaction while the optional payee is not set. Since that might not lead to the best result, ledger2beancount offers a number of mechanisms to convert ledger's free-form field to beancount's payee and narration fields.

You can set payee_split and define a list of regular expressions which allow you to split ledger's payee field into payee and narration. You have to use regular expressions with the named capture groups payee and narration. For example, given the ledger transaction header

2018-03-18 * Supermarket (Tesco)

and the configuration

  - (?<narration>.*?)\s+\((?<payee>Tesco)\)

ledger2beancount will create this beancount transaction header:

2018-03-18 * "Tesco" "Supermarket"

In other words, payee_split allows you to split the ledger payee into payee and narration in beancount. payee_split is a list of regular expressions and ledger2beancount stops when a match is found.

Another use case for payee_split is hledger's convention of separating the payee and narration with the pipe (|) symbol. While this convention is recognised for hledger files automatically (when the hledger option is set), you can use the following payee_split if you use this convention in your ledger files:

  - ^(?<payee>[^|]+?)\s*\|\s*(?<narration>.+)

Furthermore, you can use payee_match to match based on the ledger payee field and assign payees according to the match. This variable is a list consisting of regular expressions and the corresponding payees. For example, if your ledger contains a transaction like:

2018-03-18 * Oyster card top-up

you can use

  - ^Oyster card top-up: Transport for London

to match the line and assign the payee Transport for London:

2018-03-18 * "Transport for London" "Oyster card top-up"

Unlike payee_split, the full payee field from ledger is used as the narration in beancount. Again, ledger2beancount stops after the first match. Beancount comes with a plugin called fix_payees which offers a similar functionality to payee_match: it renames payees based on a set of rules which allow you to match account names, payees and the narration. The difference is that ledger2beancount's payee_match will write the matched payee to the beancount file whereas the fix_payees plugin leaves your input file intact and assigns the new payee within beancount.

Please note that the payee_match is done after payee_split and payee_match is evaluated even if payee_split matched. This allows you to remove some information from the narration using payee_split while overriding the found payee using payee_match.

The regular expressions from payee_split and payee_match are evaluated in a case sensitive manner by default. If you want case insensitive matches, you can prefix your pattern with (?i), for example:

  - (?i)^Oyster card top-up: Transport for London

Finally, metadata describing a payee or payer will be used to set the payee. The tags used for that information can be specified in payee_tag and payer_tag. Payees identified with these tags will override the payees found with payee_split and payee_match (although in the case of payee_split the narration will be modified as per the regular expression). This allows you to define generic matches using payee_split and payee_match and override special cases using metadata information.

Similarly, narration_tag can be specified to set the narration from metadata. If you use ledger's payee field to describe the payee and store the narration as metadata, you can use the following configuration:

  - (?<payee>.*)

narration_tag: narration


Account and posting metadata are converted to beancount syntax. Metadata keys used in ledger can be converted to different keys in beancount using metadata_map. Metadata can also be converted to links (see below).

Beancount is more restrictive than ledger in what it allows as metadata keys. ledger2beancount will automatically convert metadata keys to valid beancount metadata keys. This involves replacing all invalid characters with a dash and making sure the first character is a lowercase letter (either by making the letter into lowercase or adding the prefix x).

ledger2beancount also supports typed metadata (i.e. key:: instead of key:) and doesn't quote the values accordingly, but you should make sure the values are valid in beancount.


Tags are converted to beancount tags. However, beancount doesn't accept the same range of characters for tags as ledger. The tag_map config can be used to define how ledger tags are mapped to beancount tags.

Beancount allows tags for transactions but currently doesn't support tags for postings (issue 144). There are two ways to work around this limitation:

  1. Posting-level tags can be stored as metadata with the key tags. (This is the default behaviour.)
  2. Posting-level tags can be moved to the transaction itself. (This behaviour can be enabled by setting the option move_posting_tags to true).

Both approaches have pros and cons. The advantage of the first method (which is the default) is that it's fairly easy to transform the metadata to tags (with search and replace or a regex substitution) once beancount adds support for posting-level tags. The disadvantage is that the information is stored as metadata, which is different to tags.

The advantage of the second method is that tags are preserved as tags. The disadvantage is that you cannot distinguish the origin of those tags (transaction vs posting).

Therefore, if you are using ledger2beancount to migrate to beancount, the default option makes sense. On the other hand, if you're using ledger2beancount to run ledger and beancount in parallel (for example, because you're still working on the migration or want to use Fava), turning on move_posting_tags might be better.

Ledger's apply tag directive is supported. If the string to apply is metadata or a link (according to link_match, see below), the information will be added to each transaction between apply tag and end tag. If it's a tag, beancount's equivalent of apply tag is used (pushtag and poptag).

Note that tags can be defined in ledger using a tag directive. This is not required in beancount and there's no equivalent directive so all tag directives are skipped.

Beancount differentiates between tags and links whereas ledger doesn't. Links can be used in beancount to link several transactions together. ledger2beancount offers two mechanisms to convert ledger tags and metadata to links.

First, you can define a list of metadata tags in link_tags whose values should be converted to beancount links instead of metadata. For example:

  - Invoice

with the ledger input

2018-03-19 * Invoice 4
    ; Invoice:: 4

will be converted to

2018-03-19 * Invoice 4 ^4

instead of

2018-03-19 * Invoice 4 #4

Tags are case insensitive. Be aware that the metadata must not contain any whitespace.

Since posting-level links are currently not allowed in beancount, they are stored as metadata.

Second, you can define regular expressions in link_match to determine that a tag should be rendered as a link instead. For example, if you tag your trips in the format YYYY-MM-DD-foo, you could use

  - ^\d\d\d\d-\d\d-\d\d-

to render them as links. So the ledger transaction header

2018-02-02 * Train Brussels airport to city
    ; :2018-02-02-brussels-fosdem:debian:

would become the following in beancount:

2018-02-02 * "Train Brussels airport to city" ^2018-02-02-brussels-fosdem #debian


ledger2beancount supports all types of comments from ledger, including comments between transactions, on postings and between postings.

Currently, beancount doesn't accept top-level comments with the | marker (issue 282). ledger2beancount changes such comments to use the ; marker.

Virtual costs

Beancount does not have a concept of virtual costs (issue 248). ledger2beancount therefore treats them as regular costs (or, rather, as regular prices).

Please note that by default all prices are treated as virtual prices in beancount. That is, unlike in ledger, price information (@ and @@) is not automatically entered in the price database (pricedb in ledger). This only happens when the implicit_prices plugin is enabled.


Lot costs and prices are supported, including per-unit and total lot costs. Lot dates and lot notes are converted to beancount.

Ledger allows lot value expressions to indicate how to calculate the value of commodities. Lot value expressions are ignored by ledger2beancount since there's no equivalence in beancount.

The behaviour of ledger and beancount is different when it comes to costs. In ledger, the statement

    Assets:Test          10.00 EUR @ 0.90 GBP

creates the lot 10.00 EUR {0.90 GBP}. In beancount, this is not the case and a cost is only associated if done so explicitly:

  Assets:Test          10.00 EUR {0.90 GBP}

This makes automatic conversion tricky because some statements should be simple conversions without associating a cost whereas it's vital to preserve the cost in other conversions.

Generally, it doesn't make sense to preserve the cost for currency conversion (as opposed to conversions involving commodities like shares and stocks). Since most currency codes consist of 3 characters (EUR, GBP, USD, etc), the script makes a simple conversion (10.00 EUR @ 0.90 GBP) if both commodities consist of 3 characters. Otherwise it associates a cost (1 LU0274208692 {48.67 EUR}). Since some 3 character symbols might be commodities instead of currencies (e.g. ETH and BTH), the currency_is_commodity variable can be used to treat them as commodities and associate a cost in conversions. Similarly, commodity_is_currency can be used to configure commodities that should be treated as currencies in the sense that no cost is retained. This is useful if you, for example, track miles or hotel points that are sometimes redeemed for a cash value. Both of these variables expect beancount commodities, i.e. after transformation and mapping. (Note that beancount itself uses the terms "commodity" and "currency" interchangeably.)

Finally, lots are possible without a cost in ledger. For example, you can use a lot note to track a specific voucher:

2020-06-23 * Voucher
    Assets:Voucher        100.00 EUR (48H5)
    Assets:Cash          -100.00 EUR

This is not supported in beancount (see issue #482) and therefore the cost is set to 1.00 of the same commodity:

2020-06-23 * "Voucher"
  Assets:Voucher        100.00 EUR {1.00 EUR, "48H5"}
  Assets:Cash          -100.00 EUR

Balance assertions and assignments

Ledger balance assertions are converted to beancount balance statements. However, there are two differences in the way balance assertions are treated that are important to consider.

First, beancount evaluates balance assertions at the beginning of the day whereas ledger evaluates them at the end of the day (up to ledger 3.1.1) or at the end of the transaction (newer versions of ledger). Therefore, we schedule the balance assertion for the day after the original transaction. This assumes that there are no other transactions on the same day that change the balance again for this account.

Second, there is a difference in the amount taken into consideration for the balance assertion. While ledger only considers the value of the specified account, beancount takes the total of that accounts and all its sub-accounts.

Let's consider this example:

2021-01-01 Opening balance
  Assets:Checking:A           5 EUR = 5 EUR
  Assets:Checking:B           5 EUR = 5 EUR
  Equity:Opening-Balances   -10 EUR

2021-01-01 Opening balance
  Assets:Checking             1 EUR = 1 EUR
  Equity:Opening-Balances    -1 EUR

The assertion for Assets:Checking succeeds in ledger because the account has a total of 1 EUR. However, the balance check in beancount fails because it takes the total of all sub-accounts: 11 EUR (1 EUR from Assets:Checking and 5 EUR each from Assets:Checking:A and Assets:Checking:B).

ledger2beancount will print a warning to make you aware of this problem if it encounters a balance assertion with an account which has sub-accounts.

Note that hledger supports assertions for sub-accounts using the =* syntax. Beancount's behaviour is akin to hledger's =* syntax, so hledger users can use that feature to avoid compatibility problems.

In addition to balance assertions, ledger also supports balance assignments. ledger2beancount can handle some, but not all types of balance assertions. The most simple case is something like:

2012-03-10 KFC
    Expenses:Food                $20.00
    Assets:Cash                         = $50.00

which can be handled like a balance assertion. However, ledger also allows transactions with two null postings when there's a balance assignment, as in:

2012-03-10 KFC
    Expenses:Food                $20.00
    Assets:Cash                         = $50.00

This can't be handled by ledger2beancount. While ledger can calculate how much you spent in Assets:Cash and balance it with Expenses:Drink, ledger2beancount can't. The transformation of this transaction will lead to two null postings, which bean-check will flag as invalid.

Finally, ledger allows transactions solely consisting of two null postings when one has a balance assignment:

2012-03-10 Adjustment
    Assets:Cash                         = $500.00

ledger2beancount will create a beancount pad statement, followed by a balance statement the following day, to set the correct balance.

Automated transactions

Ledger's automated transactions are not supported in beancount. They are added as comments to the beancount file.

Periodic transactions

Ledger's periodic transactions are not supported in beancount. They are added as comments to the beancount file.

Virtual postings

Ledger's concept of virtual postings does not exist in beancount. Ledger has two types of virtual postings: those in parentheses ((Budget:Food)) which don't have to balance and those in brackets ([Budget:Food]) which have to balance. The former violate the accounting equation and can't be converted to beancount. The latter can be converted by making them into "real" accounts. ledger2beancount will do this if the convert_virtual option is set to true. By default, ledger2beancount will simply skip all virtual postings.

If you set convert_virtual to true, be aware that all account names have to start with one of five assets classes (Assets, etc). This is often not the case for virtual postings, so you will have to rename or map these account names.

Inline maths

Ledger supports inline maths in transactions:

2018-03-26 * Inline math
    Assets:Test1            1 GBP @ (1/1.14 EUR)
    Assets:Test2                       -0.88 EUR

Beancount also supports inline maths, but support is limited to the basic arithmetic operations. Basic maths is converted by ledger2beancount to the format expected by beancount. Specifically, the commodity is moved from the inline maths construct in order to create the "number commodity" format expected by beancount. Since beancount doesn't require round brackets to denote inline maths, they are dropped as well, resulting in:

2018-03-26 * "Inline math"
  Assets:Test1              1 GBP @ 1/1.14 EUR
  Assets:Test2                       -0.88 EUR

Ledger additionally supports functions in inline maths, such as abs, rounded, and roundto. Such complex inline maths is not supported by beancount. It will result in a conversion note and an invalid beancount file.

Implicit conversions

ledger allows implicit conversions under some circumstances, such as in this example:

2019-01-29 * Implicit conversion
    Assets:A                 10.00 EUR
    Assets:B                -11.42 USD

They are generally a bad idea since they make it very easy to hide problems that are hard to track down. Since beancount doesn't support implicit conversions, ledger2beancount will calculate and add an exchange rate.


Ledger's bucket feature (bucket or A) can be used to set a default account to use for balancing transactions. That is, if a transaction only has a single posting, the bucket account will be used to balance the transaction.

There is a plugin for beancount called fill_account which acts in a similar manner to ledger's bucket directive. However, it only supports one account to balance all transactions whereas ledger allows changing the bucket account at any point in the file.

Therefore, ledger2beancount adds the missing posting explicitly using the account name specified in the latest bucket directive.

Fixated prices and costs

ledger allows you to "fix" the cost or price at the time of a transaction, which means the amount will not be revalued subsequently when the price of the commodity changes in the pricedb. beancount doesn't have a notion of a fixated price or cost.

However, you can achieve the same result in beancount. ledger2beancount will always convert ledger fixated prices and costs to costs in beancount. This way, the original cost is always attached to the transaction. You can then use SUM(COST(position)) to get the original value.

hledger syntax

The syntax of hledger is largely compatible with that of ledger. If the hledger config option is set to true, ledger2beancount will look for some hledger specific features:

  1. hledger allows the separation of a transaction's description into payee and note (narration) using the pipe character (payee | narration).

  2. hledger allows date: and date2: to specify posting dates in posting comments in addition to ledger's [date=date2] syntax.

  3. The syntax of tags is different in hledger: tag1:, tag2:, tag3: in hledger vs :tag1:tag2:tag3: in ledger.

  4. Commas are supported as decimal markers when a number contains only a comma and no period.

  5. The end aliases directive to clear all defined account aliases is supported.

  6. Account aliases can be regular expressions.

  7. Total balance assertions (== and ==*) are recognised, but since there's no equivalent in beancount they are treated as regular balance assertions.

  8. Sub-account balance assertions (=*) are supported.

  9. Digit group marks (space, comma, and period) are supported and the format information from commodity and D directives is used to convert the numbers correctly into the format required in beancount.

Ignoring certain lines

Sometimes it makes sense to exclude certain lines from the conversion. For example, you may not want a specific include directive to be added to the beancount file if the file contains ledger-specific definitions or directives with no equivalence in beancount.

ledger2beancount allows you to define a marker in the config file as ignore_marker. If this marker is found as a ledger comment on a line, the line will be skipped and not added to the beancount output. For example, given the config setting

ignore_marker: NoL2B

you could do this:

C 1.00 Mb = 1024 Kb ; NoL2B

If you want to skip several lines, you can use $ignore_marker begin and $ignore_marker end. This syntax is also useful for ledger include directives, which don't allow a comment on the same line.

; NoL2B begin
include ledger-specific-header.ledger
; NoL2B end

Since some people use ledger and beancount in parallel using ledger2beancount, it is sometimes useful to put beancount-specific commands in the input file. Of course, they may not be valid in ledger. Therefore, you can put a commented out line in the ledger input, mark it with the $keep_marker and ledger2beancount will uncomment the line and put it in the output.

Given the input

; 2013-11-03 note Liabilities:CreditCard "Called about fraud" ; L2Bonly

ledger2beancount will add the following line to the beancount output:

2013-11-03 note Liabilities:CreditCard "Called about fraud"

You can also use $keep_marker begin and $keep_marker end to denote multiple lines that should be included in the output:

; L2Bonly begin
; 2014-07-09 event "location" "Paris, France"
; 2018-09-01 event "location" "Bologna, Italy"
; L2Bonly end